The Three Pillars of Adventure
Adventurers can try to do anything their players can imagine, but it can be helpful to talk about their activities in three broad categories: exploration, social interaction, and combat.
I want to look at a few subsystems of previous versions that are not part of the core rules of Dungeons and Dragons: Fifth Edition (5E 🔍). Rules and guidance for these subsystems can be found in the current Dungeon Master’s Guide. But they are not a first class citizen in the rules.
These systems are:
- Hirelings, retainers, and specialists - additional hired support that can bolster the parties ranks or provide specialized services
- Random encounters - a procedure to determine if the party encounters random creatures/events outside of the set pieces of the adventure
- Reaction checks - a procedure to determine non-player characters initial reaction (friendly, indifferent, hostile, etc.) to the party
- Morale checks - a procedure for seeing if non-player characters and creatures surrender, flee, or fight on
Hirelings provide additional options for exploration: a translator, a torchbearer, a rear guard, a camp guard, etc.
Random encounters breath life into a location; Instead of a series of disparate locations the random encounters highlight that the location is dangerous and dynamic.
In editions prior to Dungeons and Dragons: Third Edition (3E 🔍), random encounters put pressure on the characters to not delay. The majority of experience was from treasure and not combat and a random encounter was a high risk, low reward ordeal.
Reaction checks codify that not every encounter will escalate into combat. It provides a chance for factions and agendas to be discovered and exploited.
Morale checks primary purpose is to ensure that not everything is a fight to the death. In exploration, this means that players may be aware that any opposition is falling back to bolster defenses.
In older editions, one role of hirelings was to diffuse the lethality of combat. They are both support and built in back-up player characters. They also provide a logical means to for a guest player to join for a single session or so.
Random encounters provide a steady source of potential combat. In older editions, its ill-advised to escalate every encounter (i.e. high risk, low reward). However, for players seeking combat, random encounters are sure to please.
Reaction checks are there to make sure that not everything needs to be combat. It can steer an encounter into a social interaction instead. It adds a bit of unpredictability.
Morale provides a clear mechanism so that not every combat is fought to the bloody end. This is something that a Game Master (GM 🔍) could adjudicate on their own, but having procedures in place allows the GM to fall back on the beauty of randomization. No one knows when a combat starts if it will be to the death; But the rules can be leveraged to provide an unbiased decision.
Since morale checks also apply to all non-player characters, it raises the stakes of combat; Will your still loyal torchbearer turn tail at the sight of skeletons? Will your seasoned veteran continue to fight even if their employer has fallen? A story emerges from the dice rolls.
And this is where the four subsystems shine.
Hirelings may have their own agenda. They may leave on good terms and help the party in the future. Or a mistreated hireling might betray or openly oppose the future endeavors of the party. They provide another known social interaction point in the campaign; No need to create something new, reuse a hireling.
By leveraging reaction checks, it is not immediately obvious if each encounter is meant for combat or social interaction. This ambiguity provides a crease in the game that allows players to flex their ambitions.
And then there is morale; Does the hireling turns tail and runs at a critical moment? Or do they double down with steely resolve? How do the players respond? Do they dismiss them outright? Do they seek to rally, comfort, or console? At a minimum, there is now an in game moment with one of the hirelings that changed the state of the fiction.
And morale for possible opposition enforces that not everything is a fight to the death. Will the players spare the creature? Will they gain an ally? Or will they be betrayed? Can they hire their opponent? It keeps the questions open.
And in all of this, the random encounter is yet another source of fuel for social interactions and combat.
In my survey of numerous Old School Renaissance (OSR 🔍) games and D&D editions, I have found several implementations of these subsystems.
For Hirelings I’m fond of:
- Lamentations of the Flame Princess
- Labyrinth Lord
- Old School Reference and Index Compilation (OSRIC)
- D&D Rules Cyclopedia
For Morale my preference is:
For Reaction checks:
For Random Encounters:
There are differences between each, but the key components that I look for are as follows:
- Randomize the hiring process; Some should slander would be employers
- Codify when morale checks should be made
- Codify what random encounters are possible and how often
- Reaction checks should happen at the beginning of the encounter (I prefer that Charisma not come into play unless the characters interact with the creatures)